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W-shaped dips in M-dwarf lightcurves

30 Apr 2020, 14:50 UTC
W-shaped dips in M-dwarf lightcurves
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Planet Hunters TESS users have identified two very interesting lightcurves of M-dwarf stars that show repeating patterns that are difficult to explain with well-known astrophysical phenomena such as star spots, eclipsing binaries or stellar pulsations.
Phase folded lightcurves of two M-dwarf stars as observed by TESS.
Both of these lightcurves exhibit two dips, a shallow one and a deeper one, which could be explained as the primary and secondary eclipses of an eclipsing binary. However, in addition to these ‘eclipses’, we can also see a w-shaped dip after or after the deeper eclipse. Both lightcurves repeat with a period of less than 1 day and the patterns remain stable over the course of the available TESS observations, as shown in the phase folded figure below. The target stars are both M-dwarfs, with temperatures of around 3000 K and radii of around 0.3 Solar radii.
Similar lightcurves had previously been seen in the Kepler data, see Stauffer et al. 2017 (https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-3881/aa5eb9/pdf) for more detail. This paper suggests that the pattern could be caused by clouds of dust orbiting around one of the stars. Could that also explain the w-shaped dips in the TESS data, or are we seeing an entirely different ...

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