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Cosmic rays hint at new physics just beyond the reach of the LHC

16 Dec 2016, 13:49 UTC
Cosmic rays hint at new physics just beyond the reach of the LHC
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Cosmic ray shower. Artist’s impression.[Img Src]The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) – the world’s presently most powerful particle accelerator – reaches a maximum collision energy of 14 TeV. But cosmic rays that collide with atoms in the upper atmosphere have been measured with collision energies about ten times as high.The two types of observations complement each other. At the LHC, energies are smaller, but collisions happen in a closely controlled experimental environment, directly surrounded by detectors. This is not the case for cosmic rays – their collisions reach higher energies, but the experimental uncertainties are higher. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray observatory at center-of-mass energies of approximately 100 TeV are incompatible with the Standard Model of particle physics and hint at unexplained new phenomena. The statistical significance is not high, currently at 2.1 sigma (or 2.9 for a more optimistic simulation). This is approximately a one-in-100 probability to be due to random fluctuations. Cosmic rays are created either by protons or light atomic nuclei which come from outer space. These particles are accelerated in galactic magnetic fields, though the exact way how their get their high speeds is often unknown. When they enter the atmosphere of planet Earth, ...

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