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Tim Kendall's Extreme Astrophysics

Strong evidence suggests a super-Earth lies beyond Pluto

24 Jan 2016, 14:34 UTC
Strong evidence suggests a super-Earth lies beyond Pluto
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Caltech researchers have found evidence of a giant planet tracing a bizarre, highly elongated orbit in the outer solar system. The object, which the researchers have nicknamed Planet Nine, has a mass about 10 times that of Earth and orbits about 20 times farther from the sun on average than does Neptune (which orbits the sun at an average distance of 2.8 billion miles). In fact, it would take this new planet between 10,000 and 20,000 years to make just one full orbit around the sun. A consequence of Planet Nine is that six distant Kuiper belt objects (magenta) all follow elliptical orbits that point in the same direction in physical space; they have the same argument of perihelion. That is particularly surprising because the outermost points of their orbits move around the solar system, and they travel at different rates. A second predicted consequence of Planet Nine is that a second set of confined objects should also exist. These objects are forced into positions at right angles to Planet Nine and into orbits that are perpendicular to the plane of the solar system. Five known objects (cyan, upper figure) fit this prediction precisely. The Sun is at centre in ...

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