The quotation marks are because I copied and pasted from the online programme.
This is given by George V. Coyne, S.J., from the Vatican Observatory. He is explaining that “lessons learned” applies to not just the Church but also Galileo, and ourselves.
Historical precedents to Galileo’s times:
384-321BC: Aristotle’s Natural Philosophy, physics not just mathematics.
130 AD: Ptolemy’s Almagest, pure maths, fictitious mathematical spheres.
1519: Martin Luther’s break from Rome.
1543: Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus.
1546: 4th Session of the Council of Trent.
The main issues lurking behind the history are that Copernicisam apparently threatened Aristotle’s Natural Philosophy and Holy Scripture, and the ambigious meaning of the word “hypothesis”; with Galileo trying to create scientific models; an attempt to truly understand how the Universe works.
Galileo’s telescopic observations in 1610 were the first new data in around 2000 years, as all before had been positional astronomy. It was a challenge to Aristotle and Ptolemy: Moon’s surface, sunspots, Jupiter’s moons, phases of Venus. But what about Scripture? “The Scriptures teach us how to go to heaven and not how the heavens go” said Galileo, in a quote borrowed from a Cardinal.
In 1616 there was a judgement of the Holy ...